Choosing the right controller can make or break your electric bike experience. It connects all electrical components of an e-bike, such as the motor, battery, display, throttle, pedal-assist, and other sensors. You can say that the controller acts as the “heart” of the e-bike.
There are a lot of choices when it comes to picking an Ebike Controller. The more you know about them, the easier it is to use them correctly and ensure you get the best bang for your buck. This article will cover everything from how e-bikes work and what a controller does, to what makes one controller better than another for your specific needs.
What Is an E-bike Controller?
The e-bike controller is the heart of an electric bicycle. It controls the motor’s speed, power and torque, monitors battery levels and safety features, and controls pedal assist.
There are many different types of controllers on the market today. Still, they all have similar functions:
- Control motor speed – The controller sends signals to tell your motor how fast or slow it should spin when pedalling, so you can get up hills without getting off your bike (or falling over).
- Monitor battery voltage
If there’s not enough juice left in your batteries after charging them up at home before heading out on a long ride with friends, then chances are good that something could go wrong later down the road when suddenly one wheel stops working out-of-nowhere!
The best way around this problem is by understanding how much power remains within each individual cell inside each pack so that we know exactly how far our journey might take us before needing another charge.
The Function of the E-Bike Controller?
A bike controller is the brain of an e-bike. It controls the electric motor and battery and provides power to lights, horns and other accessories. The controller is also responsible for safety features like overcurrent and thermal protection.
Types Of E-Bike Controllers
Electric bike controllers are vital to an e-bike. They are responsible for converting the electric motor power into mechanical power that propels the wheels. Controllers can be either brushed or brushless and can be used with DC motors or BLDC motors.
- Brushed DC Motor Controllers
In the case of e-bikes, the controller is part of your electric bike that converts battery power into mechanical power. A small circuit board attached to your motor regulates speed and torque by controlling current flow through electromagnets on each side of its rotor (the spinning shaft).
Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are used in electric bikes because they’re more efficient than standard brushed DC motors and have fewer problems with heat buildup–but they require controllers specifically designed for them to work properly.
- Brushless DC Motor Controllers
Brushless DC motor controllers are more efficient than brushed DC motor controllers. This means that they use less energy, which makes them more efficient and, in turn, reduces the amount of money you may have to spend on your electric bike.
However, these controllers also have a higher price tag than their brushed counterparts.
Brushless DC motor controllers are also more maintenance intensive than their brushed counterparts because they require additional parts that can wear out or be damaged during use (such as a loose wire).
- BLDC Controllers for Motors with Hall Sensors
In a nutshell, BLDC controllers for motors with Hall Sensors are more expensive than brushed DC motor controllers. They are also more efficient, so this is your best bet if you’re looking for the best performance.
How To Choose E-Bike Controller?
Choosing the right power controller for your e-bike is a very important step. It will determine how much power you can use and how well your bike will perform.
There are many different controllers on the market, so how do you choose which one to get? We’ve compiled a list of the most important factors to consider when choosing an e-bike controller.
- Controller Voltage & Power
Ebike controllers are the brains of your ebike system. Controllers can range from simple to complex and cheap to expensive, but they all have one main job: controlling your motor’s power output.
To choose a controller for your build or repair project, you need to know two things:
- Controller Voltage Range – This is how much voltage your controller will accept from its battery pack before it draws too much current and shuts down (or burns out).
For example, if you have a 48V system with two 24V packs connected in parallel, your total pack voltage would be 48V; however, this may be more than some controllers can handle, so make sure they’re rated for at least 50V!
- Controller Power Range – This tells us how much continuous power (Watts) our motor can draw safely without overheating or burning up due to excessive current draw on startup (when motors tend to pull more amps than usual).
It also determines how much torque we get out of our motor when pedalling hard, versus when coasting along at slower speeds where less current is drawn off each cell inside its battery pack.
- Controller Current Rating
The second important thing to consider is the controller’s current rating. The higher your battery capacity, the more current it can handle at once–and this means you’ll need a controller with a higher maximum current rating.
The current rating is usually in Amps (A) or milliamps (mA). For example, suppose your battery pack has a capacity of 48V and 20Ah. In that case, its nominal voltage will be 48V x 20Ah = 960Wh or 960 Watt Hours (Wh), which means we can use this information to calculate our desired controller’s maximum continuous power output: 960W/12V = 80Amp-hours/12V=6 Amps.
- Phase and Battery Current
Another important thing to note is that the controller will have three phases and two battery currents. The phase current is the current that flows through your motor, while the battery current refers to the power source itself–in this case, your battery pack.
These two measurements are important because they dictate how much power your controller can deliver at any given time. If too much energy is drawn from one side of either measurement (or both), it could cause damage or failure in some cases!
- Controller Driving Type
The type of controller can make a lot of difference; it can help you distinguish between a smooth ride and an uncomfortable one.
Sine Wave Controllers are more efficient, produce less heat, and are more expensive than Square Wave controllers. They also have a longer lifespan, making them more worthwhile in the long run for most people who want to ride their Ebike every day.
Square Wave Controllers are cheaper than Sine Wave ones, but they produce more heat, which will cause problems later if you don’t take care of your battery properly. Also, because they’re cheaper, there’s less quality control with these types of controllers – so you’ll have to replace them earlier than usual if something goes wrong!
• Dual-Mode Controllers or Hall Sensor/Non-Hall Sensor Drives
The main difference between the Hall sensor and the non-Hall sensor drive is how they measure wheel rotation. The former uses magnetic sensors to detect the wheel’s position, while the latter relies on an optical encoder that measures light pulses from LEDs mounted on each spoke.
Hall sensors are more accurate than non-Hall sensors but also more expensive than their counterparts. They’re also more reliable because they don’t need any external power source to work (like batteries).
One thing you should keep in mind though: Hall sensors can only be used on drives with left-hand spokes; if yours has right-hand spokes, then you’ll need a dual-mode controller or use one with built-in support for both sides (which will cost quite a bit more).
A controller acts like the brain of an electric bike. They regulate the voltage and current of the motor, converting electricity from your battery into usable power.
We hope this article has helped you understand the different types of Ebike controllers and how they work. Choosing the right controller can be confusing, but we’re here to help! Contact professional bike enthusiasts if you have questions about which controller is best for your needs.
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